The Caspian Flotilla (Russian: Каспийская флотилия, tr.Kaspiyskaya flotiliya) is the oldest Russian military flotilla, stationed in the Caspian sea. It was awarded the order of the red banner in 1945.
As the situation on the Caspian Sea stabilized in due course, the number of ships in the CF began to decrease. By the beginning of the 20th century, it had two gunboats and a few armed steamers. The sailors of the CF were actively engaged in the revolutionary movement in Baku in 1903-1905 and establishment of the Soviet authority in 1917 in that region. In order to provide assistance to the Red army, they formed the Military Fleet of the Astrakhan Region (Военный флот Астраханского края, or Voyenniy flot Astrakhanskogo kraya) in April – June 1918, reinforced with torpedoboats and submarines from the Baltic sea in the fall of 1918. On October 13, the Soviets renamed it to the Astrakhan-Caspian military flotilla (Астрахано-Каспийская военная флотилия, or Astrakhano-Kaspiyskaya voennaya flotiliya). The ships of the flotilla were captured by the counterrevolutionary centrocaspian in August 1918 and later regained by the Soviets after the overthrow of the Musavat government.
In July 1919, the Astrakhan-Caspian Military Flotilla was combined with the Volga military flotilla (Волжская военная флотилия, or Volzhskaya voyennaya flotiliya) and renamed to the Volga-Caspian military flotilla (Волжско-Каспийская военная флотилия). On May 1, 1920, the Soviets established the Caspian fleet, which comprised 3 auxiliary cruisers, 10 torpedo boats, 4 submarines and other ships. Together with the Caspian Fleet, there was the Red Fleet of the Soviet Azerbaijan, stationed in Baku, as well. Both fleets completed the conquest of the Caspian Sea from the White army. In July 1920, Caspian and Azerbaijani fleets were combined into the Naval Forces of the Caspian Sea (Морские Силы Каспийского моря, or Morskiye Sily Kaspiyskogo morya) and would later be renamed to the Caspian Flotilla on June 27, 1931.
During the Great patriotic war of 1941–1945, the Caspian Flotilla secured vital sea shipping of army units, military equipment and different cargo, especially during the battle of Stalingrad and the battle for the Caucasus.
During the Cold war the Caspian was used to test missile armed ekranoplanes.